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Target Baluchistan: Understanding the Iran/Pakistan Missile Crisis

(19 Jan) In a sudden escalation of regional tensions, Pakistan and Iran have engaged in reciprocal missile strikes, marking a significant deterioration in relations between the neighbouring countries. This alarming development unfolded when Pakistan launched missile strikes into Iran’s south-eastern Sistan-Baluchestan province, reportedly targeting “terrorist hideouts,” in response to Iran’s earlier strikes within Pakistan. Occurring late on Tuesday, the exchange resulted in tragic casualties, with nine people, including women and children, losing their lives in the Iranian territory. This recent outbreak of violence represents a worrying shift in the dynamics between the two nations, historically known for their complex yet generally cordial relations. The strikes have raised international concerns, given their potential to further destabilize an already volatile region replete with overlapping crises.

Background Context

The recent airstrikes between Iran and Pakistan are deeply rooted in the history and geopolitics of the region, particularly centered around the Baloch minority straddling the remote border areas of both nations. This conflict is not just a sudden outburst but a culmination of years of unrest, marked by separatist aspirations and sporadic violence. The Baloch, predominantly Sunni Muslims in a Shia-majority Iran and a diverse Pakistan, have long felt marginalized, facing discrimination and neglect from their central governments. In Pakistan, the Baluchis have long complained they are largely ignored and exploited by the national government, who to this day have not even been able to adequately provide even the major Baluchi cities with water, gas or electricity. This has fostered a breeding ground for separatist movements and militant activities, with groups like Jaish Al-Adl in Iran and the Balochistan Liberation Army and Front in Pakistan striving for autonomy or independence. These tensions have been exacerbated by incidents such as the recent attack in Iran that killed 84 people during a commemoration for Qassem Soleimani, underscoring a volatile security situation. Islamabad’s and Tehran’s actions, including the reciprocal airstrikes, reflect a broader struggle over sovereignty, security, and regional influence.

The Armed Groups and Geopolitical Dynamics

Iran’s primary target in Pakistan was Jaish al-Adl, a Baloch Sunni group known for its opposition to the Iranian government. Tehran has labelled Jaish al-Adl a terrorist organization, holding it responsible for numerous attacks on Iranian security forces, including a recent assault in the city of Rask. This group, emerging from the earlier Jundallah, has been a persistent source of insecurity for Iran, especially in the Sistan-Baluchestan province. Conversely, Pakistan’s airstrikes targeted the Balochistan Liberation Front (BLF) and Balochistan Liberation Army (BLA) in Iran, both involved in separatist movements within Pakistan. These strikes are not isolated incidents but are part of a broader pattern of increasing military assertiveness in the region, demonstrating Tehran’s ability to project power and respond to perceived threats amidst the tumultuous Middle Eastern geopolitics.

Immediate and Broader Implications

The escalating conflict has prompted strong statements from both sides. Iran’s Foreign Minister Hossein Amirabdollahian emphasized, “The group has taken shelter in some parts of Pakistan’s Balochistan province. We’ve talked with Pakistani officials several times on this matter,” (1). This highlights Iran’s concern over the presence of militant groups along its border. Similarly, Pakistan’s former foreign minister, Bilawal Bhutto Zardari, asserted, “It would be a mistake for a country to think Pakistan can’t respond to violations,” underlining Pakistan’s commitment to its territorial integrity (2). The exchange of airstrikes goes beyond a bilateral conflict, signalling potential implications for regional stability and international relations. The involvement of international actors like China, mediating between the two allies, underlines the global ramifications of this conflict.

Iran’s Missile Strikes in Kurdistan and Regional Dynamics

In a notable escalation of regional tensions, Iran extended its military reach beyond its immediate borders, launching missile strikes into the Kurdistan region. This move was part of a larger military operation targeting areas in Iraq and Syria, reflecting Iran’s military capabilities and strategic influence. The precision of these strikes, particularly in Iraq, where Iran claims to have targeted a Mossad-linked site, signifies the strategic nature of these operations. These missile attacks into Kurdistan represent more than just a military response; they are a clear display of Iran’s willingness to assert its power across the Middle East, indicative of the larger geopolitical contest in the region.

Navigating a Tense Landscape

The recent missile exchanges between Iran and Pakistan, including Iran’s extended strikes into the Kurdistan region, encapsulate a volatile and complex regional landscape. These events are deeply rooted in historical, ethnic, and geopolitical tensions. They reveal the intricate interplay between local insurgencies, national security imperatives, and regional power dynamics. Iran’s demonstration of its military capabilities, particularly with the precision strikes in Kurdistan, signals a strategic message to both regional and international players. It highlights Tehran’s willingness to assert its influence and defend its interests in a landscape riddled with conflicts and rivalries. Similarly, Pakistan’s response to perceived threats along its border with Iran underscores its commitment to national sovereignty and security, despite the risk of escalating tensions.

Tariq Kurd was born and grew up in Hertfordshire. His family is originally from Halabja, Kurdistan but due to periodic migration currently reside across the Baluchistan region.
He has a BA Hons. in History from the Open University. Besides English, Tariq can speak Baluchi and Brahvi, he is also conversant in Persian and Pashto.
His has an eclectic range of interests including military and tribal history. Tariq lives in London and is currently studying Islamic apologetics through the Sapience Institute.